basic information


Philomachus pugnax (Linnaeus, 1758)

Турухтан | Күжіркей
spring male

North Kazakhstan area
© Ivan Zuban


Breeds in north-western Kazakhstan in south to Chapaevo village, location between Emba river and Mugodzhary ridge, and lower reaches of Turgay river. Probably breeds also between Ob and Irtysh valleys in south to Semipalatinsk. On migration occurs everywhere in plains.


Rare breeding and common passage migrant. Inhabits the wet meadows in river valleys and near steppe lakes, or the high-grassed shores of the saline-soil lake. On migration visits the shores of various reservoirs, the stubble fields or steppe lands far from the water. In spring appears in March – early April in southern areas, in April – early May in northern ones, arrives in small groups or flocks of 30-50, up to some hundred birds. First arriving males begin to mating-dance (in northern Kazakhstan in mid – end May, latest males arrive in early June). Then females appear. Female build the nest on tussock, among meadow or on island in colony of Terns and other waders; nest is located in shallow hole and is lined with dry grass. Clutches of 4 eggs is in third decade of May to early June. Alone female incubates for 21 days and cares for juveniles. The autumn migration begins in the end of June when the males with moulting collars and inner primaries gradually migrate in southern direction. In mid July females begin to migrate too, and juveniles move still later. Main stream of migration is in August – early September, the latest birds recorded in mid-September in northern areas, and in early November in southern ones. On Kyzykol lake in September 1-2 2005 about 20 thousand Ruffs were observed.


Gavrilov E. I., Gavrilov A. E. "The Birds of Kazakhstan". Almaty, 2005. Э.И.Гаврилов. "Фауна и распространение птиц Казахстана". Алматы, 1999. В.К.Рябицев. "Птицы Урала, Приуралья и Западной Сибири". Екатеринбург. Изд-во Уральского университета, 2000.


go to family:

in other projects

Birds of Azerbaijan

Birds of Belarus

Birds of Far East Russia

Birds of Georgia

Indian Birds Club

Birds of Kyrgyzstan

Birds of Northern Eurasia

Birds of Russia

Birds of Europaean part of Russia

Birds of Siberia

Birds of Tyumen Oblast

Birds of Ukraine

Birds of Uzbekistan

Birds of Xinjiang

unidentified birds


Анна Ясько: Окрасом и длиной хвоста похож на серого сорокопута.


Анна Ясько: У нас есть несколько авторитетных мнений по этой чайке, но, увы, они не единодушны: argentatus, argentatus х cachinnans, taimyrensis. Оставить в неопределенных - [....]


Леонид Ишков: Сверху к сожалению нет, тогда может быть удалить?

more unidentified birds...