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Red Crossbill

Loxia curvirostra (Linnaeus, 1758)

Клест-еловик | Шыршашыл қайшауыз
male

2013-01-21
Almaty. Samal.
© Askar Isabekov

Distribution

Breeds in coniferous forests of Altai and Tien Shan. On dispersals occurs almost everywhere. Please see detailed distribution in section Subspecies.

Biology

Common resident in mountains and rare vagrant on plains where may be found in autumn, winter and spring. Inhabits the spruce and fir forests, but on dispersal visits the deciduous forests and tree planting in urban areas. The breeding season is adapted to the time of ripening of the cones of main coniferous trees. In Altai pairs are formed in mid-February – mid-March, the nest with three incubated eggs was found in April 24, 1958; three fledglings with female were observed in April 24, 1981. Dispersal begins in early August, in winter migrates in flocks of 5-15 birds. In Tien Shan (Zailiyskiy Alatau) pairs are formed in end of June - July. Breeds in separate pairs, at distance at least 50-70 m one from another (when population is numerous). Nest is built by female (male escort her) on branch of spruce at height 8-14 m above the ground; nest is from the thin spruce twigs and thick layer of green moss (rare of lichen) with some dry grass and bast. Clutch of 3-5 eggs is laid in end of July to mid-September, but the later clutches are probably the re-nesting. Female incubates clutch 15-16 days. Both parents feed juveniles which fledge at age 16-19 days old. As soon as juveniles become independent birds disperse in flocks. Some observations in Terskey Alatau show that Crossbill breeds in winter (nest with eggs was found in January 27, 1964 at 2300 m).

Subspecies

Loxia curvirostra curvirostra (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Description. Bill more massive than altaiensis and tianschanica.
    Distribution. Probably this race occurs on dispersal in Kazakhstan almost everywhere, except Mangyshlak.

Loxia curvirostra altaiensis (Sushkin, 1925)

    Description. Bill is less massive than in curvirostra, but more massive than in tianschanica.
    Distribution. Breeds and winters in Southern and Western Altai, probably in Saur. In summer probably this race occurs in Kalbinskiy Altai.

Loxia curvirostra tianschanica (Laubmann, 1927)

    Description. Bill is more thin and less massive than in previous races.
    Distribution. Breeds in coniferous forests of Tien Shan, also probably in Dzhungarskiy Alatau. On dispersal and in winter comes down to foothills (Almaty).

References

Gavrilov E. I., Gavrilov A. E. "The Birds of Kazakhstan". Almaty, 2005. Э.И.Гаврилов. "Фауна и распространение птиц Казахстана". Алматы, 1999. В.К.Рябицев. "Птицы Урала, Приуралья и Западной Сибири". Екатеринбург. Издательство Уральского университета, 2000.

supplement

subspecies

Loxia curvirostra curvirostra
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Loxia curvirostra altaiensis
(Sushkin, 1925)
Loxia curvirostra tianschanica
(Laubmann, 1927)

other names

Обыкновенный клест

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in other projects

Birds of Belarus

Birds of Far East Russia

Indian Birds Club

Birds of Kyrgyzstan

Birds of Northern Eurasia

Birds of Russia

Birds of Europaean part of Russia

Birds of Siberia

Birds of Tyumen Oblast

Birds of Ukraine

Birds of Xinjiang

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